a lens suitable for taking photographs unusually close to the subject. (1:1 or larger) ... Macro lenses are capable of achieving tack sharp focus on the most minuscule of details. From the tiny hairs on the legs of an insect to the contents of a water droplet on a leaf — detail and colour not visible to the naked eye.
I have the Canon EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM and a Nikon AIS 105mm f/2.8 Micro-Nikkor (w/PN-11 1.13x).
Canon EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM
Focal Length & Maximum Aperture - 100mm 1:2.8
Lens Construction - 12 elements in 8 groups
Diagonal Angle of View - 24°
Focus Adjustment - Inner focusing system with USM
Closest Focusing Distance - 0.31m
Filter Size - 58mm
Max. Diameter x Length, Weight - 79.0 x 119.0mm, 600g
Magnification Ratio - up to 1x / 1:1
Nikon AIS 105mm f/2.8 Micro-Nikkor
Focal Length & Maximum Aperture - 105mm 1:2.8
Lens Construction - 10 elements in 9 groups
Diagonal Angle of View - 23.3°
Focus Details - Manual Focus Only
Closest Focusing Distance - 0.41m
Filter Size - 52mm
Max. Diameter x Length, Weight - 66 x 83.8mm, 515g
Magnification Ratio - 0.5x / 1:2 (w/PN-11 1.13x / 1:0.88)
Canon EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro
04) Focus the subject (move the camera forward or back to find the point of focus)
05) Fine tune the focus using the focusing ring (use magnified Live View mode for accurate focus)
Magnification Priority (Nikon AIS 105mm f/2.8 Micro-Nikkor) is also possible with or w/o PN-11.
I find that a 100mm Macro / Micro lens also makes an excellent walk around / portrait lens.